Price S, Platz E, Cullen L, Tavazzi G, Christ M, Cowie MR, Maisel AS, Masip J, Miro, McMurray JJ, Peacock WF, Martin-Sanchez FJ, Somma SD, Bueno H, Zeymer U, Mueller C; Acute Heart Failure Study Group of the European Society of Cardiology Acute Cardiovascular Care Association.
Echocardiography is increasingly recommended for the diagnosis and assessment of patients with severe cardiac disease, including acute heart failure. Although previously considered to be within the realm of cardiologists, the development of ultrasonography technology has led to the adoption of echocardiography by acute care clinicians across a range of specialties. Data from echocardiography and lung ultrasonography can be used to improve diagnostic accuracy, guide and monitor the response to interventions, and communicate important prognostic information in patients with acute heart failure. However, without the appropriate skills and a good understanding of ultrasonography, its wider application to the most acutely unwell patients can have substantial pitfalls. This Consensus Statement, prepared by the Acute Heart Failure Study Group of the ESC Acute Cardiovascular Care Association, reviews the existing and potential roles of echocardiography and lung ultrasonography in the assessment and management of patients with acute heart failure, highlighting the differences from established practice where relevant.