Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care
. 2023 May 4;12(5):344-352. doi: 10.1093/ehjacc/zuad025.
Guido Tavazzi, Rory Spiegel, Philippe Rola, Susanna Price, Francesco Corradi, Maxwell Hockstein
There is increasing evidence on the role of ultrasound in the evaluation of multiorgan hypoperfusion and congestion in patients with cardiocirculatory shock both to identify the underlying pathophysiological mechanism and to drive and monitor the treatment. The cardiac and lung ultrasound is included as an integrated multiparametric approach to the very early phase of patients with haemodynamic instability/cardiogenic shock. Splanchnic ultrasound has been mainly applied in heart failure and predominant circulatory failure. Although poorly validated in the critically ill, many ultrasound parameters have a strong physiological background to support their use in the acute setting those that apply either for heart/lung and for splanchnic organ evaluation. This review summarizes the ultrasonographic parameters that have shown evidence in literature in the diagnostic/therapeutic pathway to define the congestion/perfusion profile of the organs that are involved in the pathophysiological cascade of cardiocirculatory shock.